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97115
Cas9 (S. aureus) (E4G3U) Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate)
Antibody Conjugates

Cas9 (S. aureus) (E4G3U) Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate) #97115

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Flow cytometric analysis of 293T cells, mock transfected (blue) or transfected with a construct expressing myc-tagged Cas9 (S. aureus) (green), using Cas9 (S. aureus) Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate) (solid line) compared to concentration-matched Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control (PE Conjugate) #5742 (dashed line).

To Purchase # 97115S
Product # Size Price
97115S
100 µl  (50 tests) N/A

Supporting Data

REACTIVITY All
SENSITIVITY Transfected Only
MW (kDa)
Isotype Rabbit IgG

Product Description

This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Cas9 (S. aureus) (E4G3U) Rabbit mAb #51610.

Product Usage Information

Application Dilutions
Flow Cytometry 1:50

Storage:

Supplied in PBS (pH 7.2), less than 0.1% sodium azide and 2 mg/ml BSA. Store at 4°C. Do not aliquot the antibody. Protect from light. Do not freeze.

Protocol

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Flow Cytometry, Methanol Permeabilization Protocol for Direct Conjugates

A. Solutions and Reagents

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.

  1. 20X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): (#9808) To prepare 1 L 1X PBS: add 50 ml 20X PBS to 950 ml dH2O, mix.
  2. 16% Formaldehyde (methanol free).
  3. 100% methanol.
  4. Incubation Buffer: Dissolve 0.5 g Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) (#9998) in 100 ml 1X PBS. Store at 4°C.

B. Fixation

NOTE: If using whole blood, lyse red blood cells and wash by centrifugation prior to fixation.

  1. Collect cells by centrifugation and aspirate supernatant.
  2. Resuspend cells in 0.5-1 ml 1X PBS. Add formaldehyde to obtain a final concentration of 4%.
  3. Fix for 15 min at room temperature.
  4. Wash by centrifugation with excess 1X PBS. Discard supernatant in appropriate waste container. Resuspend cells in 0.5-1 ml 1X PBS.

C. Permeabilization

  1. Permeabilize cells by adding ice-cold 100% methanol slowly to pre-chilled cells, while gently vortexing, to a final concentration of 90% methanol.
  2. Incubate 30 min on ice.
  3. Proceed with immunostaining (Section D) or store cells at -20°C in 90% methanol.

D. Immunostaining

  1. Aliquot desired number of cells into tubes or wells.
  2. Wash cells by centrifugation in excess 1X PBS to remove methanol. Discard supernatant in appropriate waste container. Repeat if necessary.
  3. Resuspend cells in 100 µl of diluted antibody conjugate (prepared in incubation buffer at the recommended dilution).
  4. Incubate for 1 hr at room temperature. Protect from light.
  5. Wash by centrifugation in incubation buffer. Discard supernatant. Repeat.
  6. Resuspend cells in 1X PBS and analyze on flow cytometer; alternatively, for DNA staining, proceed to optional DNA stain (Section E).

E. Optional DNA Dye

  1. Resuspend cells in 0.5 ml of DNA dye (e.g. Propidium Iodide (PI)/RNase Staining Solution #4087).
  2. Incubate for at least 5 min at room temperature.
  3. Analyze cells in DNA staining solution on flow cytometer.

posted July 2009

revised June 2017

Protocol Id: 407

Specificity / Sensitivity

Cas9 (S. aureus) (E4G3U) Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate) recognizes transfected Cas9 (S. Aureus) protein. This antibody does not cross-react with Cas9 (S. pyogenes), AsCpf1 (Strain BV3L6), and FnCpf (Strain U112).

Species Reactivity:

All Species Expected

Source / Purification

Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Val905 of S. aureus Cas9 protein.

Background

The CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) is an RNA-guided DNA nuclease and part of the CRISPR antiviral immunity system that provides adaptive immunity against extra chromosomal genetic material (1). The CRISPR antiviral mechanism of action involves three steps: (i), acquisition of foreign DNA by host bacterium; (ii), synthesis and maturation of CRISPR RNA (crRNA), followed by the formation of RNA-Cas nuclease protein complexes; and (iii), target interference through recognition of foreign DNA by the complex and its cleavage by Cas nuclease activity (2). The type II CRISPR/Cas antiviral immunity system provides a powerful tool for precise genome editing and has potential for specific gene regulation and therapeutic applications (3). The Cas9 protein and a guide RNA consisting of a fusion between a crRNA and a trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA) must be introduced or expressed in a cell. A 20-nucleotide sequence at the 5' end of the guide RNA directs Cas9 to a specific DNA target site. As a result, Cas9 can be "programmed" to cut various DNA sites both in vitro and in cells and organisms. CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing tools have been used in many organisms, including mouse and human cells (4,5). Research studies demonstrate that CRISPR can be used to generate mutant alleles or reporter genes in rodents and primate embryonic stem cells (6-8).

Cas9 (S. aureus) is a Cas9 ortholog that is smaller, but as efficient, as the more commonly used Cas9 ortholog, Cas9 (S. Pyogenes) (9).

  1. Horvath, P. and Barrangou, R. (2010) Science 327, 167-70.
  2. Wiedenheft, B. et al. (2012) Nature 482, 331-8.
  3. Singh, P. et al. (2015) Genetics 199, 1-15.
  4. Cong, L. et al. (2013) Science 339, 819-23.
  5. Mali, P. et al. (2013) Science 339, 823-6.
  6. Li, D. et al. (2013) Nat Biotechnol 31, 681-3.
  7. Shen, B. et al. (2013) Cell Res 23, 720-3.
  8. Niu, Y. et al. (2014) Cell 156, 836-43.
  9. Ran, F.A. et al. (2015) Nature 520, 186-91.

Pathways & Proteins

Explore pathways + proteins related to this product.

For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.

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