Western blot analysis of extracts from NIH/3T3 and Jurkat cells, untreated, PDGF-treated or LY294002-treated as indicated, using Phospho-Akt (Thr308) (C31E5E) Rabbit mAb (upper) or Akt (pan) (C67E7) Rabbit mAb #4691 (lower).
Western blot analysis of recombinant Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3 proteins, and extracts from various cell lines, using Akt (pan) (C67E7) Rabbit mAb.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human melanoma using Akt (pan) (C67E7) Rabbit mAb.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human breast carcinoma using Akt (pan) (C67E7) Rabbit mAb in the presence of control peptide (left) or Akt (pan) Blocking Peptide #1085 (right).
Immunohistochemical analysis using Akt (pan) (C67E7) Rabbit mAb on SignalSlide (TM) Phospho-Akt (Ser473) IHC Controls #8101 (paraffin-embedded LNCaP cells, untreated (left) or LY294002-treated (right)).
Flow cytometric analysis of Jurkat cells using Akt (pan) (C67E7) Rabbit mAb (blue) compared to a nonspecific negative control antibody (red).
Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of C2C12 cells, LY294002-treated (left) or insulin-treated (right), using Akt (pan) (C67E7) Rabbit mAb (green). Actin filaments have been labeled with Alexa Fluor® 555 phalloidin (red). Blue pseudocolor = DRAQ5™ (fluorescent DNA dye).
PhosphoPlus® Duets from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) provide a means to assess protein activation status. Each Duet contains an activation-state and total protein antibody to your target of interest. These antibodies have been selected from CST's product offering based upon superior performance in specified applications.
Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).
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U.S. Patent No. 7,429,487, foreign equivalents, and child patents deriving therefrom.